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Dimming with LED
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How do LEDs produce light


Welcome to Kulon Lighting Standards

Welcome to Kulon Lighting StandardsFor the past 12 years, Hangzhou Kulon Electronics Co., Ltd. has provided an efficient means of lighting that has complimented various locations around the world.We utilize our dedications and creativity to offer a broad array of lighting categories. Our custom capabilities help to provide new and improved lighting designs that can be integrated into almost any environment.We believe in offering you the most energy-saving solutions with additional ordering options for more freedom of choice. Our latest and best new products are the results of quality innovations.This section of our web site is designed to keep you up to date and informed on the progress of standards and regulation related to solid state lighting and to provide resources and information. If you have any questions or need to request more certificates, please contact Kulon or simply apply your message to sales@kulon.comWe will do our best to help you.

What are some of the new uses of LEDs with the advent of OLED technology?

With the further increase in performance characteristics of LEDs and the advent of OLEDs the application sector of LEDs has expanded. Below are some of the new uses of LEDs:Luminous walls and ceilingsTransparent walls and partitions that turn opaque at different times of the day.Solar powered fabricsLuminous garments

What are the characteristics of O-LEDs that make it different from other light sources?

O-LEDs are thin, flat, two dimensional surfaces offering a soft, glare-free luminous surface. Some versions of OLED are flexible. They can be transparent, mirrored or diffused when not electrically connected.

What are O-LEDs?

O-LEDs are organic light emitting diodes. They are made of carbon based films sandwiched between two electrodes; one is a metallic cathode and one is a transparent anode, which is usually transparent glass.

What are “cold” and “hot” lumens?

These terms do not have any photometric or engineering meaning. However, "cold lumens" is the light output of the LED chip alone when it is first switched on. "Hot lumens", refers to the light output of the LED when it is fully warmed up in the luminaire. The hot lumen value may be 30% - 50% lower than the cold lumen value.

Why are LEDs considered more efficient than conventional light sources?

When comparing the lumen output between LEDs and conventional light sources, LEDs may have lower lumen value in many cases. However LEDs are directional light sources, all the lumens emitted from an LED are directed towards the task area. Conversely, conventional sources emit light in all directions. The light is then modulated in a given direction with optical systems like reflectors and lenses. The amount of lumens that falls in the intended task area from an LED light source is greater than that of a conventional light source.

Does increasing the wattage of LEDs increase their output?

This may occur if you are using the same product from the same brand, with the same optics and hardware. However, in general, the nature of the components (like the optical system, the heat sink, the LED chip, and the driver) affects the output more than the wattage does. A 3watt LED luminaire from one manufacturer will have a different output to a 3watt LED luminaire from another manufacturer, even if the same LED chip is used. Hence, using a high quality chip alone does not guarantee better performance. Note that as the wattage increases, the efficiency drops slightly. An LED driven at 3W will emit slightly less than three times the output of one driven at 1W.

What is the best way to compare the output of LEDs with other light sources?

Sometimes simply comparing the lumen output of LEDs and conventional light sources may not be adequate. The amount of light falling on a specific task area (the lux) gives a more realistic comparison. You should also consider the amount illumination visible on the walls. This helps identify applications where LEDs offer better solutions than other light sources.

What are the product features to look for in LEDs used in harsh environments?

More rugged O rings and gaskets for more robust seals.Thicker enclosures to prevent movement around seals to prevent breakage of seals.Additional bolting around gaskets and seals to prevent snapping of seals.A vent made of two-way permeable membrane. This allows water vapor and gas to pass through but not liquid water.

The LED luminaire is hot to touch. Why is this?

The LED chip, or light engine produces heat. This needs to be dissipated as quickly as possible. This is normally done by with a heat sink, which often has fins. Cool LEDs are more efficient than hot ones. They also have a longer life. Of course, higher power LEDs generally run hotter than low power ones because of the extra heat to remove.

Is it true that LEDs do not produce heat?

No. It is true that there is no heat, IR, in the beam. However, the LED fixture itself, does produce heat. However it may become warm, or hot, to the touch.

What are the various causes of condensation within LED luminaires?

Heat build up occurs as the luminaire is turned on, and as it cools down when it is switched off.Pressure changes caused by a change in altitude and environmental conditions during transportation in cargo holds or in planes.Thermal shock due to rain, snow or washing cycles.

What are common challenges or problems when using LED fixtures in harsh environments?

The LED drivers can fail early due to ingress of moisture or condensation. The driver enclosure needs to be properly sealed to prevent this.LEDs are less resistant to damp than other light sources. This means that particular attention needs to be given to the light fixture seal and cable glands.

What are the different ways in which luminaire design can help reduce glare from LEDs?

Here are few of the ways in which glare can be reduced from LEDs:Use of microprismatic technology to develop special diffusers that disperses light from individual LEDs. This system gives out homogeneous light with optimum levels of contrast avoiding any direct or reflected glare.Design of secondary reflectors systems; where the primary reflector, which will hide the view of the LED and direct the light into the secondary reflector that will distribute the light in the intended way.Use of a combination of TIR (total internal reflection) lenses / collimator lens, which that produce a parallel beam of light, and a facetted lens. This combination will distribute the light beam as intended.